What is proteomics?

Proteomics is a large-scale study of proteins.

What are proteins

Proteins are nitrogenous organic compounds composed of large molecules (amino acids) and are the essential part of all living organisms.

How manny proteins do humans have

Once the first drafts were completed of the human genome, the number of identified genes (+/-28,000) were far less than 100,000 genes expected from earlier predictions. The scientific community were somehow disappointed that humans have less genes then a grape.

Every gene codes for proteins and proteins are the appearance and performance of the cells. They hold the key to being sick or healthy. Proteins are the major functional molecules responsible for all biological processes. With a total number of proteins per unit cell volume of 2–4 million proteins per cubic micron.

The tadpole frog comparison


One of the most striking example that illustrates the importance of of proteins in organism, is the difference between a frog and its fishlike tadpole. They both share exactly the same set of genes, but they are also as different as day and night. The same is true for the all the different cell types within one organism. Differences in cell function between brain and muscle tissue are caused by specific proteins working together in these cells, encoded by the same DNA.

Cancer and Imbalance in Protein Profiles

Often cancer does not simply result from damage to the DNA, but are caused by imbalances in the protein profile determining cell functions. Tumor growth can be caused by mutations on different points in the DNA causing a change in proteins designed to regulate normal cell growth.

This limits possible treatment options after DNA analyses in cancer. Which means that we need to know the impact of proteins to cure cancer.

New times in Human Biology

Sequencing the human genome and profiling proteins has initiated new times in human biology. This offers huge opportunities to improve health. Due to advances in science, the emphasis is now rapidly moving towards the biological interpretation of the biological data. This biological interpretation relies heavily on the field of bioinformatics. bioinformatics combine mutations in DNA and function mutations, and interactions of the proteins (genes) and their role in biological processes.

Proteomics at Tumor Technologies

The role of proteins is extremely important. Providing a snapshot of the cell in action, enables tumor technologies to understand the structure, function and interactions of the entire protein content in a specific tumor. At tumor technologies they try to improve our understanding of biological processes at the molecular (protein) level. They aim to improve drug therapy and obtain better biomarkers for health and disease. Once proteomics tools mature more, there will be immense social implications of results generated by proteomics.

Understanding tumors with mole rats

Can mole rats get cancer?

Most cells in an organism can detect when they become cancerous and know how to shut them self-down (called apoptosis). However, the blind mole rat and the naked mole rat have an immune system that attacks tumors cells to shut them down (called necrosis). New genetic research show that genes involved in this immune defence have been favored by evolution.
Some of those genes are mutated in the mole rats as part of their adaptation to low oxygen. Some mutations produce for example lower P53 protein levels.

The mole rat species have spent their entire lives under the ground, where oxygen is scarce. In other animals, this would increase p53 levels which would mean that some cells would die from apoptosis, but not in blind mole rats. They have evolved a unique evolutionair trade-off, weakening p53 and boosting the immune system’s defence (increasing necrosis), an immune system in over-drive eliminate all cancer cells in the mole rat.
 
This mechanism has fascinated researchers all over the world who study aging and cancer. Mole rats can live up to 30 years, about nine times longer than mice of the same size.

Scientist have studied mole rats for many years and they never reported a mole rat with cancer. That is way long have been thought that mole rats cannot get cancer. Until a 22-year-old male mole rat at the Brookfield Zoo in Chicago developed a mass on its upper right chest. The mass measured 1.5 cm in diameter. Scientist removed and studied the mass, and reported that it looked like a malignant tumor from the mammary or salivary gland.

Even though we know now, that also mole rates get cancer scientist are still interested in the its defence mechanisms like the P53 protein. It is extraordinary that they can life for 30 years without developing cancer. Therefore, both the blind mole rat and the naked mole rat genome are sequenced. And both show interesting mutations and gene duplications.

Immunotherapy, what is it?

Immunotherapy is treatment that uses a person’s own immune system to destroy tumor cells. This can be done in a couple of ways:


– Tricker your own immune system to work harder and/or smarter to attack tumor cells.
– Helping you immune system with proteins, such as immune system proteins.

To understand immunotherapy you need to know what an immune system is.

Your immune system is a collection of special cells, organs, and proteins that help protect you from infections and some other diseases. Immune cells and the proteins travel through your body to protect it from organisms that cause infections. They are also able destroy tumor cells.

The immune system keeps track of all of the proteins normally found in the body. Any new proteins that the immune system doesn’t recognize raises alarmbells, causing the immune system to attack it. An example of the mechanism could be, germs contain certain proteins that are not normally found in the body. The immune system recognise these proteins and destroys the germs.
The immune system can recognise cancer cells, but often the tumor cells contain proteins that are not recognized as cancer proteins. This is because tumors start as normal cells they change and start to grow out of control.

Clearly there are limits on the immune system’s ability to destroy tumor cells on its own. The immune system doesn’t always see the tumor cells as strange because the cells aren’t changed enough compared to normal cells. Sometimes the immune system recognizes the cancer cells, but the response might not be strong enough to destroy the tumor. Tumor cells themselves can also give off proteins that keep the immune system in check.
To overcome this problem, scientist have found ways to help the immune system recognize tumor cells and increase the immune response to find and destroy the tumor cells.

In the last decade immunotherapy has become the treating option for some types of cancer. New technologies of immune treatments are now being studied, and they will impact how we treat tumors in the future.

Immunotherapy is a term that includes treatments that work in very different ways. Some boost the immune system in a very general way. Others help the immune system to attack cancer cells very specifically.

Immunotherapy seems to works better for some types of tumors than for others. For some cancers imunnotherapy is enough and others seem to work better with in combination with other types of treatment.

Types of immunotherapy that are being used today:

– Monoclonal antibodies: Work by recognising and finding specific proteins on cancer cells. These proteins are synthesised as Antibodies and can be very useful in treating cancer.

– Immune checkpoint inhibitors: These drugs basically take the ‘brake’ off the immune system, which helps attack cancer cells.

– Cancer vaccines: is a vaccines with proteins put into the body to start an immune response against tumor cells.

– Other, non-specific immunotherapies: These are general boosts to the immune system to help the immune system attack cancer cells.

Immunotherapy drugs are now used to treat many different types of tumour cells. For more questions or information about immunotherapy as a treatment for a specific cancer, please send us a massage.

Essential Steps to Follow After Your Diagnoses

What you should know after your diagnoses

There are many different types of tumor treatment. The types of treatment that you have will depend on the type of tumor you have and how advanced it is. Some people with cancer will have only one treatment. But most people have a combination of treatments, such as surgery with radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy. You may also have immunotherapy, targeted therapy, or hormone therapy.

Clinical trials might also be an option for you. Clinical trials are research studies that involve people. Understanding what they are and how they work can help you decide if taking part in a trial is a good option for you.

When you need treatment for cancer, you have a lot to learn and think about. It is normal to feel overwhelmed and confused. But, talking with your doctor and learning all you can about all your treatment options, including clinical trials, can help you make a decision you feel good about.

Questions to Ask Your Doctor About Treatment

What is the best ways to treat my type and stage of cancer?
Does DNA sequencing and protein mapping ad value to treat my type and stage of cancer?
What is the risk and benefit of each of the treatment?
What treatment do you recommend and why?
When to start treatment?
Is surgery an option for me? 
What are the side effects and wat is my chance of recovery with this treatment? 
How will we know if the treatment is working?
Would a clinical trial (research study) be right for me?
Where do I find studies for my type and stage of cancer?
Should I bank my tumorcells for immunotherapy or other future treatments.
Where can I finding a specialist to get a Second Opinion

Cure to Cancer

How to cure cancer

Cancer is one of the largest global health issues in the world. It is an very complex disease, and early detection and novel therapeutic treatments are essential for more effective tumor treatment. With the development of genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics, the therapeutic approach has moved from hypothesis-driven targeted investigations to data-driven un-targeted investigations.

The focus changed to integrated prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cancer in individual patients. Personalized medicine is still the most promising approach to reduce the burden of cancer and facilitate more accurate prognosis, diagnosis, as well as effective treatment.

How to personalize your medicine:

Diagnostics:

Genomics: Sequencing DNA of the tumor
Proteomics: Analyzing protein production
Bioinformatics: Combining genomics, proteomics and literature.

Biobanking:

Living biobank and cryopreservation of living tumor cells: to establish primary tumor organoid cultures for cancer therapy and drug responses.

For more info >>